Jewish religious poet, moralist, and philosopher. He was born at Malaga in 1020 or 1021, and died at Saragossa in 1070

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

     Catholic_Encyclopedia Avicebron
    Salamo Ben Jehuda Ben Gebirol (or Gabirol), whom the Scholastics, taking him for an Arabian, called Avicebrol (this form occurs in the oldest manuscripts; the later manuscripts have Avicebron, etc.).
    Avicebron was a Jewish religious poet, moralist, and philosopher. He was born at Malaga in 1020 or 1021, and died at Saragossa in 1070. He was educated at Saragossa, where he spent the remainder of his life, devoting himself to moral and intellectual philosophy, and writing religoius poetry. His principal philosophical work, written in Arabic, was translated into Hebrew in the thirteenth century by Falaquera, and entitled "Mekor Chajim" [this was discovered and edited with French translation by Munk, "Melanges" etc. (Paris, 1857), and into latin in the twelfth century by Johannes Hispanus and Dominicus Gundisallinus (edited by Baumker, Munster, 1895) under the title "Fons Vitae". His poems were published by Munk ("Melanges", etc., Paris, 1857), and a Hebrew translation of his ethical writings (Riva, 1562, and Luneville, 1840). Avicebron's philosophy united the traditional neo-Platonic doctrines with the religious teaching of the Old Testament. From the neo-Platonists, whom he knew chiefly through such apocryphal writings as the "Theologia Aristotelis" and the "Liber de Causis" (see ARABIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY), he derived the doctrine of emanation, namely: that there emanated from God, in the first place, the Universal Intelligence, that from the Universal Intelligence there emanated the World- Soul, and that from the World-Soul there emanated Nature, which is the immediate principle of productivity of material things. From the same neo-Platonic sources he derived the doctrine that matter is of itself wholly inert and merely the occasion which is made use of by the Infinite Agent to produce natural effects (Occasionalism). On the other hand, he drew from Biblical sources the doctrine that the Supreme Principle in the production of the universe was not the Thought of God, but the Divine Will, which, in Scriptural phrase, he calls the Word of God. In thus attempting to combine Jewish religious doctrine with the notion of emanation, he introduced into his philosophy elements which are logically incompatible.
    His most celebrated doctrine, however, the one by which he was best known to the Christian philosophers in the Middle Ages, was that of the universality of matter. All created things, he taught, are composed of matter and form. God alone is pure actuality. Everything else, even the highest among the Angels, is made up of matter (not mere potency, but matter like that od terrestrial bodies) and form, just as man is composed of body and soul. The matter, however, of angelic bodies, while it is like terrestrial matter, is of a purer kind and is called spiritual matter. In other words, there are no created "separate substances", as the Schoolmen called them. Between the pure spirituality of God and the crude materiality of terrestrial bodies there mediate substances composed of matter and form, which range in ascending scale of spiritual-materiality from the soul of man to the highest angelic nature. This doctrine is mentioned by almost all the great scholastics, and referred by them to the "Fons Vitae" for instance by Albert the Great (Summa Totius Theol., I, q. xlii, art. 22), by St. thomas (Quaest. Disp., De Anima, art. 6; Opusculum de Subst. Separatis, passim), and Duns Scotus (De Rerum Princip. VIII.4). But, while the first two, in common with other Dominican teachers, refuted the author of "Fons Vitae" on this point, the last mentioned, together with Alexander of Hales and others of the Franciscan School, adopted his doctrine as part of their theory of the angelic nature.
    BAUMKER, Avencebrolis Fons Vitae (Munster, 1895); MUNK, Melange, etc. (Paris, 1857); St. Thomas, Opusculum De Substantiis Separatis (Op. XV of Roman ed.; De Maria, Rome, 1886), III, 221 spp.; GUTTMANN, Die Philos. des Salom. Ibn Gabirol (Gottingen, 1889); STOCKL, Lehrb. der Gesch. der Phil. (Mainz, 1888), 555 sqq.; tr. Finlay (Dublin, 1903), 315 sqq.; TURNER, Hist. of Phil. (Boston, 1903), 315 sqq.
    Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.

Catholic encyclopedia.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Avicebron — (Avencebrol, Salomon Ibn Gabirol), jüd. Dichter und Philosoph in Spanien, geb. um 1020 in Malaga, gest. gegen 1070, erwarb sich durch seine religiösen Gesänge für die Synagoge hohes Ansehen und wird als Philosoph besonders wegen seines in… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Avicebron — Avicebron, jüd. Dichter, s. Gabirol …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Avicébron — (Salomon ibn Gabirol ou Gebirol, connu sous le nom d ) (v. 1020 v. 1058) philosophe et poète juif néo platonicien, auteur du traité Fons vitae ( Source de vie ), commentaire mystique de la Loi de Moïse …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Avicebron — Solomon ben Jehuda ibn Gabirol, kurz Solomon (Salomo) ibn Gabirol (* 1021 oder 1022 in Málaga; † um 1057 in Valencia) war ein jüdischer Philosoph und Dichter im muslimischen Spanien (al Andalus). In der lateinischsprachigen christlichen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Avicebron — Salomon ibn Gabirol Salomon ibn Gabirol (représentation artistique) Salomon ibn Gabirol (héb.שלמה בן יהודה אבן גבירול, Shelomo ben Yehouda ibn Gabirol; ar.أبو أيوب سليمان بن يحيى بن جبيرول, Abou Ayyoūb Souleiman ibn Yahya ibn Jabirūl; lat.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Avicébron —     Voir Philosophie juive: Avicébron …   Philosophie du Moyen Age

  • Avicebrón — /ah vee the brddawn , se / n. (Solomon ben Judah ibn Gabirol) 1021? 58, Jewish poet and philosopher in Spain. * * * …   Universalium

  • Avicebron — See Ibn Gabirol …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Avicebrón — (Salomon ibn Gabirol) ► (1021 70) Poeta y filósofo hispanojudío. Autor del libro La fuente de la vida …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Avicebrón — /ah vee the brddawn , se / n. (Solomon ben Judah ibn Gabirol) 1021? 58, Jewish poet and philosopher in Spain …   Useful english dictionary

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