- Distinguished JesuitsDistinguished Jesuits† Catholic_Encyclopedia ► Distinguished JesuitsSaints:♦ Ignatius Loyola;♦ Francis Xavier;♦ Francis Borgia;♦ Stanislaus Kostka;♦ Alfonso Rodriguez;♦ Juan de Castillo;♦ John Berchmans;♦ John Francis Regis;♦ Peter Claver;♦ Francis de Geronimo;♦ Paul Miki, John Goto, James Kisai, Japanese martyrs (1597)♦ Peter Canisius;♦ North American Martyrs: Isaac Jogues, Anthony Daniel, John de Brébeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Charles Garnier, Noel Chabanel (priests), and Rene Goupil and John Lalande (lay missionaries);♦ Robert Bellarmine,♦ Andrew Bobola;♦ John de Britto;♦ Claude de La Colombière (1641-82), Apostle of the devotion to the Sacred Heart;BlessedAmong the blessed are:♦ Peter Faber;♦ Anthony Baldinucci;♦ Bernardo Realini;♦ The Forty Martyrs of Brazil:♦ Priests♦ Ignatius de Azevedo (q.v.)♦ Didacus de Andrada;♦ Scholastics:♦ Antonio Suarez;♦ Benedictus a Castro;♦ Francisco Magalhaes;♦ João Fernandes;♦ Luiz Correa;♦ Manoel Rodrigues;♦ Simon Lopez;♦ Manoel Fernandes;♦ Alvaro Mendes;♦ Pedro Nunhes;♦ Andreas Goncalves;♦ Juan a S. Martino;♦ Novices:♦ Gonzalvo Henriques;♦ Didaco Pires;♦ Ferdinand Sancies;♦ Francisco Perez Godoi;♦ Antonio Correa;♦ Manoel Pacheco;♦ Nicholas Diniz;♦ Alexius Delgado;♦ Marco Caldeira;♦ Sanjoannes;♦ Lay brothers:♦ Manoel Alvares;♦ Francisco Alvares;♦ Domingos Fernandez;♦ Gaspar Alvares;♦ Amarus Vaz;♦ Juan de Majorga;♦ Alfonso de Vaena;♦ Antonio Fernandes;♦ Stefano Zuriare;♦ Pedro Fontoura;♦ Gregorio Scrivano;♦ Juan de Zafra;♦ Juan de Baeza;♦ Blasio Ribeiro;♦ João Fernandez;♦ Simon Acosta;♦ the Japanese martyrs:♦ Priests:♦ John Baptist Machado, 1617;♦ Sebatian Chimura, 1622;♦ Camillo Costanzo, 1622;♦ Paul Navarro, 1622;♦ Jerome de Angelis, 1623;♦ Didacus Carvalho, 1624;♦ Michael Carvalho, 1624;♦ Francisco Pacheco and his companions Baltasar de Torres and Giovanni Battista Zola, 1626;♦ Thomas Tzugi. 1627;♦ Anthony Ixida, 1632;♦ Scholastics:♦ Augustine Ota, 1622;♦ Gonzalvus Fusai and his companions, Anthony Chiuni, Peter Sampo, Michael XumpÒ Louis Cavara, John Chingocu, Thomas Acafoxi, 1622;♦ Denis Fugixima and Peter Onizuchi (companions of Bl. Paul Navarro), 1622;♦ Simon Jempo (companion of Bl. Jerome de Angelis), 1623;♦ Vincent Caun and his companions;♦ Peter Rinxei, Paul Chinsuche, John Chinsaco; Michael TozÒ 1626;♦ Michael Nacaxima, 1628;♦ Lay brothers:♦ Leonard Chimura, 1619;♦ Ambrosio Fernandes, 1620;♦ Gaspar Sandamatzu (companion of Bl. Francis Pacheco, 1626);♦ the English martyrs:♦ Thomas Woodhouse, 1573;♦ John Nelson,♦ Edmund Campion,♦ Alexander Briant;♦ Thomas Cottam, 1582;♦ the martyrs of Cuncolim (q.v.):♦ Priests:♦ Rudolph Acquaviva;♦ Alfonso Pacheco;♦ Pietro Berno;♦ Antonio Francisco;♦ Lay brother:♦ Francisco Aranha, 1583;♦ the Hungarian martyrs:♦ Melchior Grodecz and Stephen Pongracz, 7 September, 1619.VenerablesThe venerable include, besides those whose biographies have been given separately (see the Index), Nicholas Lancicus (1574-1653), author of "Gloria Ignatiana" and many spiritual works, and with Orlandini, of "Historia Societatis Jesu"; Julien Maunoir (1606-83), Apostle of Brittany.CardinalsThough the Jesuits, in accordance with their rules, do not accept ecclesiastical dignities, the popes at times have raised some of their number to the rank of Cardinal, as Cardinals Bellarmine, Franzelin, de Lugo, Mai, Mazzella, Odescalchi, Pallaviocino, Pázmány, Tarquini, Toledo, Tolomei, (qq.v.); also Cardinals Casimir V, King of Poland, created 1647; Alvaro Cienfuegos (1657-1739), created 1720; Johann Eberhardt Nidhard (1607-81), created 1675; Giambattista Salerno (1670-1729), created 1709; Andreas Steinhuber (1825-1907), created 1893; and Louis Billot (b. 1846) created 27 November, 1911.As reference is made in most of the articles on members of the Society to Sommervogel's monumental "Bibliotheque de la Compagnie de Jésus" a brief account of its author is given here. Carlos, fourth son of Marie-Maximillian-Joseph Sommervogel and Hortense Blanchard, was born on 8 Jan, 1834, at Strasburg, Alsace, and died in Paris on 4 March, 1902. After studying at the lycée of Strasburg, Carlos entered the Jesuit novitiate at Issenheim, Alsace, 2 Feb., 1853, and was sent later to Saint-Acheul, Amiens, to complete his literary studies. In 1856, he was appointed assistant prefect of discipline and sub-librarian in the College of the Immaculate Conception, Rue Vaugirard, Paris. Here he discovered his literary vocation. The "Bibliothèque" of PP. Augustin and Aloys de Backer was then in course of publication, and Sommervogel, noting its occasional errors and omissions, made a systematic examination of the whole work. Four years later, P. Aug. de Backer, seeing his list of addenda and errata, a manuscript of 800 pages, containing over 10,000 entries, obtained leave to make use of it. Sommervogel continued at Rue Vaugirard till 1865, reviewing his course of philosophy meanwhile. He then studied theology at Amiens, where he was ordained in Sept., 1866. From 1867 till 1879 he was one of the staff on the "Etudes", being managing editor from 1871 till 1879. During the Franco-German war he served as chaplain in Faidhebe's army, and was decorated in 1871 with a bronze medal for his self-sacrifice.P. de Backer in the revised edition of his "Bibliotheque" (1869-76) gave Sommervogel's name as co-author, and deservedly, for the vast improvement in the work was in no small measure due to the latter's contributions. From 1880 to 1882 P. Sommervogel was assistant to his father-provincial. Before 1882 he had never had any special opportunity of pursuing his favourite study; all his bibliographical work had been done in his spare moments. In 1884 he published his "Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes et psuedonymes publiés par des religieux de la Compagnie de Jésus". In 1885 he was appointed successor to the PP. de Backer and went to Louvain. He determined to recast and enlarge their work and after five years issued the first volume of the first part (Brussels and Paris, 1890); by 1900 the ninth volume had appeared; the tenth, an index of the first nine, which comprised the bibliographic part of the "Bibliothèque" was unfinished at the time of his death but has since been completed by P. Brucker, from which these details have been drawn. P. Sommervogel had intended to compile a second, or historical part of his work, which was to be a revision of Carayon's "Bibliographic historique". He was a man of exemplary virtue, giving freely to all the fruit of his devoted labours, and content to live for years a busy obscure life to which duty called him, until his superiors directed him to devote himself to his favorite study during the last fifteen years of his life. He re-edited a number of works by old writers of the Society and, in addition to his articles in the "Etudes", wrote "Table methodique des Mémoires de Trévoux" (3 vols. Paris, 1885); Moniteur bibliographique de la Comp. de Jesus" (Paris, 1894-1901).Menologies, Biographies.—Alegambe, Mortes illustres et gesta eorum de Soc. Jesu qui in odium fidei necati sunt (Rome, 1657); Idem, Heroes et victims charitatis (Rome, 1658); Drews, Fasti Soc. Jesu (Braunsberg, 1728); Chandlery, Fasti Breviores Soc. Jesu (London, 1910); Guilhermy, Menologe de la comp de J.: Portugal (Paris, 1867); France (Paris, 1892); Italie (Paris, 1893); Germanie (Paris, 1898); Macleod, Menol. for the English assistancy (London); Boero, Menologio (Rome, 1859); Stoger, Historiographie Soc. Jesu (Ratisbon, 1851); Nieremberg, Claros varones de la comp. de J. (Madrid, 1643); Patrignani, Menol. d'alcuni religiosi della comp. di G. (Venice, 1730); Tanner, Soc Jesu apostolorum imitatrix (Prague, 1694); Idem, Soc. Jesu usque ad mortem militans (Prague, 1675); Thoelen, Menol der deutschen Ordensprovinz (Roermond, 1901). Bibliographies of particular persons on a larger scale than can be given here, will be found under the separate articles devoted to them. (See also Index volume.) The best-arranged historical bibliography is that of Carayon, Bibliographie de la compagnie de Jesus (Paris, 1864). See also Southwell, Bibl. scriptorum Soc. Jesu (Rome, 1676); De Backer, Bibliotheque des escriv, de la comp. de Jesus (Liege, 1853); Sommervogel, Bibl des escriv. de la comp. de Jesus (10 vols., Brussels, 1890-1910); Hunter, Nomenclator literarius (Innsbruck, 1892-9); Hamy, Iconography de la comp de Jesus (Paris, 1875); Idem, Galerie illustree de la comp. de J. (8 vols., Paris, 1893). De Uriarte, Catal. rasonado de obras ... de auctores de la comp. de Jesus (Madrid, 1904). Jesuit Periodicals.—Memoires de Treveuz (Treveuz and Paris, 1701-67, 265 vols.), Table methodique, by Sommervogel (3 vols., Paris, 1864-65); Civilta cattolica (Rome, 1850); Etudes hist., lit., et relig. (Paris 1854); began as Etudes de theol., intermittent, 1880-8; Table generale, 1888-1900 (Paris, 1901); Precis historiques (Brussels, 1852), Tables, 1862-72 (Brussels, 1894), in 1899 it became Missions belges: The Month (London, 1864), Index (1864-1908); Stimmen aus Maria-Laach (Freiburg, 1871), began as Die Encyclika (1864). In connection with this is issued a series of Erganzungshefte. Also Register I, 1871-86; Register II, 1886-99; Studien (Utrecht, 1868); Rev des questions historiques (Brussels, 1877); Przeglad powszechny (General review, Cracow); Zeitsch. fur kath. Theol. (Innsbruck, 1876); Razon y Fe (Madrid, 1901). Besides the above, which deal with topics of all sorts, there are a host of minor periodicals devoted to special subjects; scientific, liturgical, social, college, mission and parochial magazines are more numerous still. The Messenger for the Sacred Heart has editions for many countries and in numerous languages. It is the organ of the Apostleship of Prayer; most of these editions are edited by members of the Society; America (New York, 1909). See also Bollandists; Ratio Studiorum; Retreats; Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius; Theatre.)J.H. POLLENTranscribed by Michael Donahue In gratitude for four years of Jesuit education at Loyola University of Chicago. AMDG.
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat. 1910.
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