- Camisards• Eighteenth-century French sect
Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006.
- CamisardsCamisards† Catholic_Encyclopedia ► Camisards(Probably from camise, a black blouse worn as a uniform).A sect of French fanatics who terrorized Dauphiné, Vivarais, and chiefly the Cévennes in the beginning of the eighteenth century. Their origin was due to various causes; the Albigensian spirit which had not completely died out in that region, and which caused Pope Clement XI to style the Camisards "that execrable race of ancient Albigenses"; the apocalyptic preaching and literature of the French Calvinists, such as Jurieu's "Accomplissement des propheties", on which they were nourished; and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), along with the singular methods of conversion employed by the agents of Louis XIV. If the Camisards withstood the armies of Louis for wellnigh two decades, the reason is to be found in the desultory manner of warfare which the latter adopted, in the failure of Louis' generals, de Broglie, Montrevel, Villars, etc., properly to realize the danger of the situation, and also, to a very great extent, in the support given them by the Protestant (Protestantism) house of Nassau, then in control of Holland and England. The insurrection began in the Cévennes. Du Serre, an old Calvinist of Dieulefit in Dauphiné, became suddenly "inspired", and his religious hysteria spread rapidly. The murder of the Abbé de Chaila, inspector of the missions in Cévennes, in 1702, was tantamount to a declaration of war. Armed bands led by Séguier, Laporte, Castanet, Ravenel, Cavalier, and others carried on a sort of guerilla warfare till about 1705, when they either surrendered or were destroyed. In 1709 Cavalier, who had sought refuge in England, tried, though without much success, to rekindle the revolt in Vivarais. There were a few more disturbances as late as 1711, when a treaty of peace with England deprived the Camisards of a powerful support. On the 8th of March, 1715, by medals and a proclamation, Louis XIV announced the entire extinction of the sect.Much has been written on the "prophets" of the Camisard uprising. Fléchier and Brueys believed in a school of prophets, wherein Du Serre gave a systematic training, chiefly to young recruits. The prophetic inspiration, of which there four degrees, avertissement, souffle, propheties, dons, was communicated by breathing upon subjects who had gone through severe macerations, memorized long Biblical texts and formulae of imprecation, learned to perform the strangest contortions, and generally wrought themselves into a sort of trance. On the other hand, Court and Arnault, themselves Calvinists, deny the very existence of such a school. They cast aside as obviously fraudulent a number of so-called spiritual manifestations. The rest they trace to an overheated imagination, pietism, excessive fasts, the reading of the Prophets and Jurieu's pastoral letters, and also to the peculiar temperament of those Southern mountaineers. If such is the case, there is no need of admitting with Görres, Mirville, and H. Blanc supernatural influences — diabolical, of course — to account for the Camisards' antics.Though Calvinists, the Camisards should not be too closely identified with Calvinism. Many Calvinists condemned their cruelties and despised their visions. The Synod of Nîmes, 1715, enacted two statutes, evidently aimed at the Camisards: that women and unauthorized persons be debarred from preaching; and that Holy Scripture be adopted as the sole rule of faith and source of preaching. Fourteen years after that synod Court had organized in Languedoc a strong Calvinist community, in which no traces of the Camisard spirit could be discerned. It is true that those who had fled to England did try to propagate their "mystical phalanx" in London, and published in 1707, in the British capital, a mass of Camisard literature: "Le théâtre sacré des Cévennes"; "A cry from the desert"; etc.; but the Consistory of the French Church in the Savoy pronounced their ecstasies to be assumed habits. Voltaire (Siècle de Louis XIV, xxxvi) relates that Elie Marion, one of the refugees, became unpopular, both on account of his writings (avertissements prophetiques) and false Miracles, and was at last compelled to leave England. Catholics, too, organized under the name of White Camisards, or Cadets of the Cross, the better to check the black Camisards, but they soon fell into atrocities similar to those they sought to punish, and were disowned by Montrevel.FLECHIER, Recit fidele in Lettres choisies (Lyons, 1715); BRUEYS, Hist. du fanatisme de notre temps (Montpellier, 1713); CAVALIER, Mem. of the Wars of the Cevennes (London, 1726); COURT, Hist. des troubles des Cevennes (Alais, 1819); BLANC, De l'inspir. des Camisards (Paris, 1859); DUBOIS, Sur les prophetes Cevenols (Stasburg, 1861); ARNAULD, Hist. des protestants de Dauphine (Paris, 1876; LEGRELLE, La revolte des Camisards (Braine-le-Comte, 1897); See also ROSBACH in Hist. gen. du Languedoc, XIII; MONIN in La grande encyl., s.v.; VERNET in Dict. de theol. cath., s. v.J.F. SOLLIERTranscribed by Herman F. Holbrook Credo et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat. 1910.
Look at other dictionaries:
CAMISARDS — Nom donné aux calvinistes cévenols révoltés à la fin du règne de Louis XIV et qui vient du patois languedocien camiso , chemise, parce qu’ils portaient, dans leurs opérations nocturnes, une chemise blanche sur leurs vêtements pour se reconnaître… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Camisards — (franz., spr. sār), s. Kamisarden … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Camisards — [kami zaːr, französisch] Plural, die Kamisarden … Universal-Lexikon
Camisards — Kamisarden (franz. Camisards) war der Name der Hugenotten in den Cevennen, welche Abkömmlinge der Waldenser waren und sich im 16. Jahrhundert der Reformation angeschlossen hatten. Ein erster Aufstand der Kamisarden nach der Aufhebung des Edikts… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Camisards — Camisard Camisard Les Camisards étaient des protestants français (Huguenots) de la région des Cévennes, en France, qui ont mené une insurrection contre les persécutions qui ont suivi l Édit de Fontainebleau en 1685. La révolte des Camisards… … Wikipédia en Français
Camisards — Derived from the Languedoc word camiso, meaning shirt, Camisards was the name given to the Calvinists of the Cévennes because they wore a white shirt under their garments as a sign of recognition among themselves during their night raids… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Camisards — Protestant militants in southern France who opposed Louis XIV s persecution of Protestantism. The armed insurrection, which began in 1702, came in response to Louis s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, ending religious toleration. The well… … Universalium
camisards — Campesinos protestantes de la región de Cévennes en el sur de Francia que se opusieron a la persecución de Luis XIV a los protestantes. La insurrección armada, que comenzó en 1702, surgió en respuesta a la revocación real del edicto de Nantes,… … Enciclopedia Universal
CAMISARDS — Huguenots of the Cévennes, who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV., in which others joined, under Jean Cavalier their chief, after, and in consequence of, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685); so called… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Camisards — French Calvinists disaffected by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1703) … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors