Nicholas of Lyra
- Nicholas of Lyra• Exegete, author of postillae, insisted that the literal sense of Scripture is the foundation for any spiritual interpretation
Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006.
- Nicholas of LyraNicholas of Lyra† Catholic_Encyclopedia ► Nicholas of Lyra(Doctor planus et utilis)Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The report that he was of Jewish descent dates only from the fifteenth century. He took the Franciscan habit at Verneuil, studied theology, received the doctor's degree in Paris and was appointed professor at the Sorbonne. In the famous controversy on the Beatific Vision he took sides with the professors against John XXII. He labored very successfully, both in preaching and writing, for the conversion of the Jews. He is the author of numerous theological works, some of which are yet unpublished. It was to exegesis that Nicholas of Lyra devoted his best years. In the second prologue to his monumental work, "Postillae perpetuae in universam S. Scripturam", after stating that the literal sense of Sacred Scripture is the foundation of all mystical expositions, and that it alone has demonstrative force, as St. Augustine teaches, he deplores the state of Biblical studies in his time. The literal sense, he avers, is much obscured, owing partly to the carelessness of the copyists, partly to the unskillfulness of some of the correctors, and partly also to our own translation (the Vulgate), which not infrequently departs from the original Hebrew. He holds with St. Jerome that the text must be corrected from the Hebrew codices, except of course the prophecies concerning the Divinity of Christ. Another reason for this obscurity, Nicholas goes on to say, is the attachment of scholars to the method of interpretation handed down by others who, though they have said many things well, have yet touched but sparingly on the literal sense, and have so multiplied the mystical senses as nearly to intercept and choke it. Moreover, the text has been distorted by a multiplicity of arbitrary divisions and concordances. Hereupon he declares his intention of insisting, in the present work, upon the literal sense and of interspersing only a few mystical interpretations. Nicholas utilized all available sources, fully mastered the Hebrew and drew copiously from the valuable commentaries of the Jewish exegetes, especially of the celebrated Talmudist Rashi. The "Pugio Fidei" of Raymond Martini and the commentaries of St. Thomas Aquinas were laid under contribution. His exposition is lucid and concise; his observations are judicious and sound, and always original. The "Postillae" soon became the favourite manual of exegesis. It was the first Biblical commentary printed. The solid learning of Nicholas commanded the respect of both Jews and Christians.Luther owes much to Nicholas of Lyra, but how widely the principles of Nicholas differed essentially from Luther's views is best seen from Nicholas's own words. "I protest that I do not intend to assert or determine anything that has not been manifestly determined by Sacred Scripture or by the authority of the Church .... Wherefore I submit all I have said or shall say to the correction of Holy Mother Church and of all learned men ... "(Prol. secund. in Postillas., ed. 1498). Nicholas taught no new doctrine. The early Fathers and the great schoolmen had repeatedly laid down the same sound exegetical principles, but, owing to adverse tendencies of the times, their efforts had partly failed. Nicholas carried out these principles effectively, and in this lies his chief merit — one which ranks him among the foremost exegetes of all times.WADDING, Annales (Rome, 1733), V, 264 7; VI, 237 9; IDEM, Scriptores (Rome, 1906), s. v., SBARALEA, Supplementum (Rome 1806), s. v.; FABRICIUS, Bibl. lat. et inf. latinitatis V (Hamburg, 1736), 114 sqq.; HAIN, Repertorium. bibl. (Paris, 1826-38), s. v.; COPINGER, Supplement to Hain's Repert. bibl. (London, 1895-1902), s. v.; DENIFLE AND CHATELAIN, Chartul. Universit. Paris, II (Paris, 1891), passim; FERET, La faculte de theol. de Paris et ses docteurs les plus celebres, III (Paris, 1894-96), 331-9; SIMON, Hist. crit. des commentaires d. V. T. (Rotterdam, 1683); IDEM, Hist. crit. des princip. commentateurs d. N. T. (Rotterdam, 1693); BERGER, Quam notitiam linguae hebr. habuerunt Christiani med. aevi in Gallia (Nancy, 1893); CORNELY, Hist. et crit. Introd. in utr. Test. libros sacros, I (Paris, 1885), 660-2; GIGOT, Gen. Introd. to the study of the Scriptures (New York), 444 sq.; NEUMANN, Influence de Rachi et d'autres commentateurs juifs sur les postilles de Lyra in Revue des etudes juives, XXVI (1893), 172 sqq.; XXVII (1893), 230 sqq.; MASCHKOWSKI, Raschis Einfluss auf N. v. L. in d. Ausleg. d. Exodus in Zeitschr. f. alttestam. Wissenschaft, XI (1891), 268 sqq.; LABROSSE, Biogr. et aeuvres de N. v. L. in Etues franciscaines XVI (1906), 383 sqq.; XVII (1907), 489 sqq., 593 sqq.; XIX (1908), 41 sqq., 153 sqq., 368 sqq.; BIHL, Hat N. v. L. in Erfurt dosierti in Zeitschr. d. Vereins f. thuring. Gesch. u. Altertum., XXVI (1908), 329 sqq.; see also a paper on Nicholas of Lyra by MARCHAL in Annuaire de.l'universite cath. de Louvain (1910), 432 sq.THOMAS PLASSMANNTranscribed by Joseph E. O'Connor
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat. 1910.
Look at other dictionaries:
Nicholas of Lyra — A page of Genesis in Postillae perpetuae... Basel, 1498: the first printed biblical exegesis: space has been left for a hand lettered red initial (a rubric) that was never added to this copy. Nicholas of Lyra (French: Nicolas de Lyre) (c.… … Wikipedia
Nicholas Of Lyra — ▪ French biblical scholar Latin Nicolaus Lyranus born c. 1270, , Vieille Lyre, Normandy died Oct. 16/23, 1349, Paris author of the first printed commentary on the Bible and one of the foremost Franciscan theologians and influential… … Universalium
NICHOLAS, EDWARD° — NICHOLAS, EDWARD°, author of a famous 17th century plea in favor of the resettlement of the Jews in England. Entitled An Apology for the Honourable Nation of the Jews, and all the Sons of Israel, and published in London in 1648, it was translated … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Lyra viol — Viola da gamba engl.: Viol, ital.: Viola da gamba, frz.: Viole de gambe Klassifikation … Deutsch Wikipedia
BIBLE — THE CANON, TEXT, AND EDITIONS canon general titles the canon the significance of the canon the process of canonization contents and titles of the books the tripartite canon … Encyclopedia of Judaism
biblical literature — Introduction four bodies of written works: the Old Testament writings according to the Hebrew canon; intertestamental works, including the Old Testament Apocrypha; the New Testament writings; and the New Testament Apocrypha. The Old… … Universalium
Versions of the Bible — • Article on versions of the Bible in the original languages and in translation. Grouped by source Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Versions of the Bible Versions of the Bible … Catholic encyclopedia
Psalms — • The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the Writings , i.e. of the third section of the printed Hebrew Bible of today. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Psalms Psalms … Catholic encyclopedia
List of Biblical commentaries — This is an outline of exegesis. Discussed are the salient points of Jewish, patristic, medieval, and modern commentaries, starting with the Jewish writers. The topic starts with the Targums, Mishna, and Talmuds. While these are not regarded as… … Wikipedia
List of biblical commentaries — This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed (1913). Commentaries on the Bible . Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company … Wikipedia